Monthly Archives: January 2013

Colonel Waldegrave

Another high-powered, and intriguing, subscriber of Kirby’s Historical Account was “Hon. Col. Waldegrave”. This was John Waldegrave (1718—1784), a career soldier. Waldegrave was close to the centers of power, especially in the 1740s and 1750s. Born in 1718, the third son of the 1st Earl Waldegrave, he joined the Foot Guards as Ensign in 1735, aged sixteen (his father withdrew him from Eton on the grounds that he “would never be a scholar” and a desire to “sound out [his] dispositions whether for the Sea or Land Service”).

The Waldegraves had been a prominent Catholic family (John Waldegrave’s grandmother was an illegitimate daughter of James II) who had been exiled to France. His father, James Waldegrave, had married in 1714 a wealthy Catholic, Mary Webb, who came with a £12000 dowry. Not long after his wife died in childbirth in January 1719, he took his place in the House of Lords, swearing allegiance and abjuring his former faith. By 1723, he had been appointed a Lord of the Bedchamber to George I, a position he retained under George II and held until his death in 1741. Much more important than the, admittedly handy, £1000 salary was direct personal access to the king. Waldegrave also became friendly with the Walpoles. Horace Walpole (1717—1797) was a contemporary of Waldegrave’s two sons, James and John (the other son died young), a playmate and lifelong friend; the elder son James married Maria Walpole. Along with his personal service to the king came diplomatic service: he was Ambassador at Vienna 1728—1730, and Ambassador in Paris 1730—1740, a posting occasionally a little sticky given his background.

James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave

On the death of the 1st Earl in 1741, his eldest son James inherited the title. Although he was very close to George II, he had little political background and few connections. He hated the machinations involved with party politics and, while discreet and respected in personal diplomacy, was not a faction-builder. When, very reluctantly, he did become Prime Minister in 1757, his administration lasted all of five days. Interestingly enough, he was (also reluctantly) for a time tutor to the Prince of Wales (the future George III) and his brother before the takeover by Bute. James died in 1763 and his brother inherited the title as the 3rd Earl.

James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave

And so we come to the Hon. Col. Waldegrave. John Waldegrave proceeded steadily in the Army. He was promoted to Colonel in 1748, the year after becoming aide-de-camp to the Duke of Cumberland. He, too, became a Groom of the Bedchamber to George II and George III. He joined Parliament as member for Orford in Suffolk in 1747, and held a seat in the Commons until succeeding his brother in 1763. Thus was his status when Kirby’s book appeared. Ahead of him were a scandalous marriage in 1751 to Elizabeth Leveson-Gower, daughter of the Earl of Gower, without her father’s consent, leading the British infantry at the Battle of Minden in 1759, promotion to General in 1772, and appointment as Lord-Lieutenant of Essex in 1781. He died in 1784.

Viscount Hereford

Another of Kirby’s titled subscribers to the Historical Account was the Viscount Hereford. In Kirby’s case, this was Price Devereux, 10th Viscount Hereford (1694—1748). He was MP for Montgomeryshire (in Wales) from 1719 until he inherited the title on his father’s death in 1740 and was an ardent Tory. According to the History of Parliament site, he voted “against the Administration in all recorded divisions until he became a peer”.

At first blush he might not seem an obvious candidate for a subscriber. However, there were links to Suffolk, as we saw with the “Unqualitied Persons” post. In 1720, he married a cousin, Elizabeth Martin, who brought him Christchurch Mansion in Ipswich, although he sold it in 1735 after she died.

When his wife died, she was buried at Sudbourne as the Devereux family also held manors at Sudbourne, Orford and Earl Soham. In some documents of the 1730s, he is listed as living at Sudbourne Hall, now lost, and he also owned the rather splendid Orford Castle.

Sudbourne Hall

He remarried in 1740, to Eleanor Price, a Welsh woman, shortly before his father died, but he never had any children, and on his own death in 1748, the year that Kirby’s book came out, the title passed to a distant relative and the Suffolk estates were sold off.

Duke of Grafton

Along with the Duke of Norfolk, Kirby also snagged the Duke of Grafton as a subscriber to the Twelve Prints and Historical Account. The Duke of Grafton was a title created for Henry Fitzroy, one of the numerous illegitimate children of King Charles II. Henry Fitzroy married the daughter of the Earl of Arlington (who gave his name to a portion of Washington DC). The marriage may have been a love match: he was nine, she was five. In Kirby’s time, it was his son, Charles Fitzroy (1683—1757), the 2nd Duke, who held the title. The first Duke sided with William of Orange in the 1688 Revolution and died in 1690 of wounds received fighting with William’s forces at Cork. His son was six.

The 2nd Duke went on to great things. He was Lord High Steward at King George I’s coronation, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland from 1720 to 1724, and Lord Chamberlain from 1724 until his death. He was a strong supporter of the Royal Academy of Music, and, perhaps mindful of his own background, one of the original Governors of the Foundling Hospital, along with William Hogarth.

Here he is as a young man painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller in a ‘Kit-cat’-sized portrait.

And later on in a portrait by William Hoare.

The Dukes of Grafton also have subsidiary titles of Viscount Ipswich and Baron Sudbury. The family seat is at Euston Hall in Suffolk. At the time of Kirby’s book, along with being Lord Chamberlain, the Duke of Grafton was Lord-Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum (keeper of the records) of Suffolk and could be expected to patronize worthy projects such as Kirby’s.

Death in 1728

Of course, the parrot wasn’t the only one dying in London in 1728. The newspapers published a summary mortality table at the end of the year, in fact, in the case of the Ipswich Journal, the same page as that recording the unfortunate decease of the parrot. Some of the causes of death remain the same centuries later, others are mercifully reduced, or, indeed, completely incomprehensible. It would take a better historian of medicine to translate some of these old causes. What does stand out, though, is the truly awful infant mortality and how dangerous it was to give birth.

The DISEASES and CAUALTIES this Year.
Abortive

55

Loosness

33

Aged

1768

Lunatick

26

Ague

44

Malignant Fever

2

Apoplexy

73

Measles

82

Asthma

156

Miscarriage

1

Bedridden

14

Mortification

238

Bleeding

3

Palsie

28

Bloody Flux

23

Plurisie

48

Cancer

49

Purples

10

Canker

16

Quinsy

11

Chicken Pox

1

Rash

2

Childbed

216

Rheumatism

25

Cholick

78

Rickets

103

Concuss. of the brain

1

Rising of the Lights

41

Consumption

3491

Rupture

12

Convulsions

7517

St. Anthony’s Fire

6

Cough

5

Scald Head

5

Diabetes

3

Scurvy

3

Dropsie

1125

Small Pox

2105

Evil

35

Sores and Ulcers

36

Fever

4716

Spleen

3

Fistula

10

Spotted Fever

92

Flux

14

Stilborn

533

French Pox

113

Stone

43

Gout

39

Stop in the Stomach

147

Gravel

4

Strangury

4

Grief

13

Suddenly

101

Griping of the Guts

433

Surfeit

8

Headmouldshot

40

Swelling

1

Hooping-Cough

21

Teeth

1676

Horseshoehead

28

Thursh

84

Jaundies

132

Tissick

456

Imposthume

28

Twisting the Guts

16

Inflammation

4

Tympany

18

Itch

3

Vomiting

6

Leprosie

8

Water in the Head

73

Lethargy

13

Worms

31

Livergrown

10

Broken Limbs 2. Bruised 3. Burnt 2. Died for Want 6. Died by the Bite of a Mad Dog 1. Drowned 89. Excessive Drinking 22. Executed 37. Found dead 44. Frighted 2. Kill’d by Falls and other Accidents 47. Made away themselves 59. Murder’d 6. Overlaid 71. Poisoned 1. Scalded 4. Stabb’d 1.

Christned Males 8497. Females 8155. In all 16652.

Buried Males 13538. Females 14272. In all 27810.

Decreas’d in Burials this Year 808.

Whereof have died,

Under Two Years Old

9851

Forty and Fifty

2624

Between Two & Five

2407

Fifty and Sixty

2123

Five and Ten

1038

Sixty and Seventy

1863

Ten and Twenty

950

Seventy and Eighty

1290

Twenty and Thirty

2254

Eighty and Ninety

785

Thirty and Forty

2490

Ninety and upwards

135

Just Resting

Along with the regular run of politics, murders, fire, and robberies, the newspapers liked to carry the odd color story. Here is one from the Ipswich Journal of December 1728 you might like.

On Tuesday last, a dead Parrot of a Lady in Rose-Street, after lying in State some time, was put into the Ground, with great Solemnity, in the Pall-Mall, in a Place constantly kept by the said Lady, for the Interment of Birds, Dogs, &c. No Cost was spar’d in the Procession, the Attendants on Poll to her last Home, having Crapes, Gloves, &c, bestowed on them; and the Lady was condol’d with, suitable to so great a Loss.

The solemnity of the report was perhaps slightly marred by the ‘m’ of Solemnity being printed upside-down, although I have no idea how accidental or intentional that was.

Duke of Norfolk

The Earl of Effingham wasn’t the only Howard Kirby obtained as a subscriber to the Twelve Prints, he also had the Duke of Norfolk himself. The Duke of Norfolk was not only the leading Howard, but the premier Duke in England, and also hereditary Earl Marshal. The relevant Duke for Kirby was Edward Howard, 9th Duke of Norfolk (1686—1777). The principal seat of the Dukes of Norfolk is Arundel Castle, but it was not always their favorite home.

Arundel Castle

The 9th Duke grew up abroad, returning to England only when his brother died in 1732 and he inherited the title. His wife, Mary Blount preferred Worksop Manor and renovated it extensively, although it later burned down.

A later view of Worksop manor

The Duke and Duchess also spent a lot of time in London, rebuilding connections with the royal family (the previous Duke had supported the Jacobites in 1715) and building a lavish town residence, Norfolk House. When Frederick, Prince of Wales married to Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha and had a falling out with King George II, the Norfolks offered him the use of their house and he lived there for several years. George III was born there. The house was pulled down in 1938, but the Music Room was saved for the V&A. For more on Norfolk House, pop over here.

Norfolk House Music Room

The Duchess had here portrait painted several times. Here is the one by William Hoare from the 1730s.

Mary Howard (Blount), Duchess of Norfolk

Earl of Effingham

Most of the subscribers to Kirby’s Twelve Prints and Historical Account were local Suffolk worthies, but the list does contain a few more exotic entries, such as the Earl of Effingham. One might wonder what such a grand and un-bookish personage is doing on the list. Effingham is in Surrey and the young (2d) Earl (1714—1763) was a soldier, as was his father before him. In the 1740s he was a colonel of Horse Guards, and, after inheriting the title on his father’s death in 1743, was appointed Deputy Earl Marshal of England. In 1749 he became an aide-de-camp to the king. A long way from an obscure house painter in Ipswich.

The connection lies in Kirby’s choice of monuments for his prints. Among them were the tomb of Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, the tomb of his son-in-law, Henry Fitzroy (as the name indicates, an illegitimate son of Henry VIII), and the tomb of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. The Earls of Effingham were Howards, belonging to a cadet branch of the family, and so Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Effingham, subscribed.

It was his eldest son, Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas Howard, 3rd Earl of Effingham, who resigned his commission rather than fight against the American colonists in the American Revolution, an act that led to him having a ship and two counties (in the US) named after him, but which did not prevent him from serving in his turn as Deputy Earl Marshal, nor from becoming Governor of Jamaica.